The Ancient Paradigm Focused

In particular the peculiar position of the larynx in the neck. The larynx is a cartilage box located just at the entrance to the trachea. The largest of these cartilages, the thyroid, is located in the anterior part of the larynx and forms the protuberance we call the Adam’s nut or bite. The larynx houses the vocal cords, the source of sounds. The oropharynx is a region of the anatomy that originates in the posterior part of the mouth, from the soft palate to the hyoid bone and includes the posterior third of the tongue. On its anterior face, the oropharynx borders the oral cavity through the anterior and posterior palatal pillars and on each side with the palatal tonsils.

The oropharynx is also the place where food, fluids and saliva pass through when swallowed, from the mouth to the esophagus. Along with the mouth, the oropharynx emits air for vocalization and non-nasal exhalation, is the passage of food during vomiting and participates in the identification of taste. There is a free space between the oropharynx and the larynx of adults, the supralaryngeal space, which is a common pathway in the respiratory tract and digestive tract; through this tract air passes to the larynx and food and fluid to the esophagus. The supralaryngeal space is less effective in performing some of the functions of the upper airways. In addition, it makes the mechanism that prevents food from entering the respiratory tract less efficient, with the consequent risk of drowning.

We Also Lost The Ability

To breathe through our noses while drinking. Being able to Usa phone number while swallowing a liquid is essential for breastfeeding. This is why our babies have their larynx high in their neck, in the same position as other mammals, and can suckle without interrupting their breathing. First, Why was such vital capacity lost in the course of evolution? Darwin admitted that, in the case of organs that performed various functions, natural selection could specialize them in one, although at the expense of diminishing their effectiveness in performing other tasks, if with this specialization they increased the chances of survival. The specialization of the human upper airways, with their lower larynx and wide supralaryngeal space, favors one of their functions: the production of the wide range of sounds on which our language is based.

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It seems obvious that the ability to speak, that is, to communicate effectively. More than makes up for both the loss of the ability to drink and breathe at the same time. And the risk of choking. But the larynx, formed by cartilage and supported by muscles, does not fossilize. How has it been analyzed from fossils? (the larynx does not fossilize, nor the ligaments, nor the muscles of the neck). However, certain bone structures related to it are preserved in fossils. These are the base of the skull and the hyoid bone. Until a little over a decade ago, no hominid fossil hyoid bone was known. The research was therefore focused on the anatomy of the base of the skull, which does fossilize.

We Compare The Base

Of a human’s skull with that of a chimpanzee (the scale has been altered so that it can relate better): the human’s base is short in front of the foramen magnum (long in the chimpanzee) and the palate is smaller (large in the chimpanzee) Edmund Crelin [36] , Jeffrey Laitman [37] and Philip Lieberman [38] , working together or separately, established the conclusions that prevailed in this field for more than twenty years. They noted, in the first place, a number of anatomical features in which. The base of the skull of infant humans and that of chimpanzees, whose larynx is located high in the neck. Were very similar to each other and different from the morphology of the skull. Base of the skull of adult humans.

In essence, these traits, common to newborn humans and chimpanzees, were as follows. Base of the skull slightly flexed between the end of the bony palate. And the foramen magnum extensive oropharynx, that is. A large space behind the hard palate, marked separation between the basioccipital and vomer bones. Traits that, they warned, were changing during the course of growth to reach the typical morphology of adults. While the situation of the larynx in the neck went down. They associated the position of the larynx with these anatomical features. Fossil research revealed that the larynx of early hominids ( Australopithecus afarensis , Australopithecus africanus. Homo habilis , and Paranthropus ) held the same position as chimpanzees. Which is why they would develop similar language skills.

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