On The Other Hand, Fossils From

To that of modern adult humans, from which a low position of the larynx could be inferred. Laitman concluded that australopithecines had the larynx in a high position, like chimpanzees, and that the descent, a decisive factor in the articulation of sounds, began in Homo ergaster / erectus , which would have it in a position similar to that of an 8-year-old modern human child. For Coppens and Picq, the larynx went down when we started running. Complete basicranial flexion, similar to that of modern humans, would not be achieved until archaic Homo sapiens , some 300,000 years ago. Based on these results, they stated that the evolution would have followed two lines. In the case that came down to us, the phonator had only undergone slight “tweaks”, which would have perfected it.

On the other hand, the phonatory apparatus would have undergone a process of regression to an anatomy converging again with that of chimpanzees. Neanderthals would belong to this branch. These characteristics have been proposed as indicators of the position of the larynx with the argument that in the babies of humans who have the larynx high – which then goes down throughout life – the anatomy of the base of the skull is it looks more like a chimpanzee than a human. In the face of this, a correlation was proposed: as the larynx descends, the cranial base changes.

The Conclusion Was Clear

An open base of the skull, entailed a high larynx Uk phone number database therefore no speech. On the other hand, a closed base of the skull involved a low larynx and therefore the possibility of speech. Neanderthals, then, could not speak. To justify the Neanderthal loss of speech ability, they argued that their upper airways would have changed in order to specialize in the function of warming and humidifying the cold, dry air of glacial Europe. They would have sacrificed an incipient and perhaps not yet very important faculty, the speech, in the face of a more urgent selection pressure, that of being able to breathe and continue living. But the Neanderthal skulls studied by Laitman, Crelin, and Lieberman retained only part of their bases.

UK Phone Number Database

They started, therefore, from reconstructions. Herein lay the weakness of his work. Jean Louis Heim and David Frayer [39]they soon objected that the reconstruction of the Neanderthal skull La Chapelle-aux-Saints, the most representative fossil of the sample studied, was incorrect; in particular, he underestimated his basicranial flexion. In 1989, the first fossil hyoid bone in the hominid record appeared at the Israeli site of Kebara. The Kebara site is about 60,000 years old and a fairly complete skeleton of a Neanderthal specimen has been found, although it lacks a skull and leg bones. From the hyoid, located in the posterior region of the floor of the mouth, several muscles of the tongue and others that elevate the larynx.

Our Closest Living Relatives

The chimpanzees, have a hyoid bone whose morphology is quite different from that acquired in modern humans. Since Kebara’s hyoid is essentially identical to that of modern man. Its discoverers, led by Baruj Arensburg, assumed that the rest. Of the Neanderthal’s foundry, including the position of the larynx. Must have been similar to that of humans. moderns. However, by stating that from the morphology of the hyoid bone can. Be established that of the whole of the phonatory apparatus is. For many authors, a risky inference. Especially when it has not been possible to establish any functional relationship between the anatomy. Of the hyoid and the position of the larynx, the most determining aspect of our phonatory apparatus.

Studies to reconstruct the phonetic apparatus of Neanderthals, based on the morphology of their basicranium. Have been widely criticize because they. Have been based on reconstructions of very fragmentary material. One of the key fossils in this context is the Neanderthal skull of La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Which has lost most of its base. The skull 5 of the Sima de los Huesos retains almost all of its base. Making it ideal for studying the evolution of the human founding apparatus. And a first conclusion is reach: to reconstruct the position of the larynx in the neck. Basicranial flexion is not essential; there is no direct relationship between the two variables.

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