Daniel Lieberman And Robert Mccarthy

Of the skull along growth, in a large sample of children. We also note that the existence of a large oropharynx was not unique to newborn humans and chimpanzees. The analysis of the basicranial morphology of the Skull 5 shows that it coincides with modern humans in a double aspect, namely the distance between the vomer and the basioccipital and the insertion of the superior constrictor muscle of the pharynx. Add to this the fact that the two hyoid bones of the Sima de los Huesos are also like those of modern human populations (that is, much closer to ours than the hyoids of chimpanzees). Based on the morphology of the base of the skull 5, of modern human type, and in the hyoid bones, we believe that the position of the larynx of the fossils.

Let’s compare the upper airways (it is the treatment that goes from the vocal cords to the nasal and buccal cavity) in modern humans and chimpanzees Outline of the larynx, the upper airways of a chimpanzee and a modern human. The anterior part of the larynx is made up of the thyroid cartilage, which forms a bulge in the neck, easily distinguishable (“new” or “Adam’s bite”). Inside the larynx are the vocal cords. The epiglottis is a spoon-shaped cartilage above the larynx that acts as a tongue, closing food to the larynx. In adults the larynx is in a low position in the neck, which is the anatomical basis of our oral language. Let’s look at the differences: modern humans have a very short nasal cavity and mouth compared to chimpanzees with a longer snout.

The Vocal Cords, The Larynx

Occupy a lower position in the neck Australia mobile number database between nasal / mouth cavity and larynx in chimpanzees and sapiens. The horizontal part has become shorter and the vertical longer Until now, this was considered a unique adaptation in humans. The low larynx in the neck is a relatively detrimental structure in evolution, because the low position of the larynx makes it difficult for the epiglottis [40] and tongue to work when blocking the respiratory tract when we are ingesting a liquid. or we swallow a solid. It is easier for the larynx to get into the windpipe and lungs as the larynx is longer. The classic argument was: how has natural selection been able to modify the upper airways to make them work worse? (Mammals usually have a high larynx position and an effective locking mechanism).

Australia Mobile Number Database

And the answer was: this has happened because this anatomy of the upper pathways has taken on another function that in absolute terms was more important for survival than the risk of drowning. And what could be this function? That of emitting the sounds that make up human speech. Which ones are specific? The vowels. This morphology is suitable for producing vowels, in particular the. Which are fundamental in communication. All research has focused on one idea: vowels are the important ones. They are the fundamental sounds, the core of oral language. In order for us to be able to pronounce the a, and, u the vertical line needs to modify its sections. Sounds are waves that can be described with two inverse parameters: frequency and wavelength.

Depending On The Length

And the section, which can be modified with the movements of the tongue, the sound is filtered. We observe the modifications. In the / i / the vertical section is wide, but the horizontal section narrows as the tongue rises; on the other hand, the tongue flattens and the horizontal section becomes wide but the vertical narrows; in the case of the / u / the vertical section becomes wide and the horizontal section becomes two extensions. The acoustic properties of these vowels are the most distinguishable among all that we can pronounce. As is evident in the following vowel triangles: The chimpanzee. Not having the proper morphology, cannot pronounce the vowels and therefore cannot speak.

Conclusion: The lower larynx allows clear vowels to be pronounced and, therefore, to produce intelligible language. A high larynx would produce dirty vowels, very close together, and therefore unintelligible language. Critique of the three premises of the ancient paradigm: 1. William Tecumseh ShermanFitch [41] (1963) finds that there are other mammals that have the position of the lower larynx (deer, dogsā€¦). And proposes that the position of the larynx has to do with the size of the body. On the other hand, articles by a Nishimura-led group on hyoid bone and larynx in chimpanzees were published in 2006. Concluding that up to an age equivalent to 10-year-olds. The position of the larynx is homologous.

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